Symbol substitution tests are among the oldest and most well established of all psychological measures. These tasks require a motor response (i.e., copying) and the ability to associate symbols with numbers or vice versa. The speed and accuracy with which an examinee completes the test is traditionally considered an indication of his or her intellectual ability. Such a test was incorporated into the Army Beta Examination, which was used to screen illiterate military recruits during World War I (Tulsky, Saklofske, & Zhu, 2003). Unlike the modern version of the test, it contained a symbol substitution test that was administered via pantomime and therefore did not require reading, writing, or the comprehension of spoken English.