According to a 1997 report by the Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), universities in the United States issue about 1,500 patents per year, with about 200 universities engaged in technology transfer. This is six times the 250 patents issued from universities in 1980, prior to the Bayh-Dole Act, which enables universities, federally funded research programs, and small businesses to own and patent inventions discovered in federally funded research programs.