In an article provocatively entitled ‘Why Postcolonialism Hates Revolutions’, Tabish Khair once criticised the poststructuralist strand of postcolonial studies’ disavowal of ‘all claims of universality’, warning that such an emphasis ‘makes impossible […] the possibility of change in any revolutionary (and, hence, democratically collective) sense’ (Khair 1999, 7). This chapter comes from two motivations: firstly, to investigate the capacity of contemporary world literature to represent revolution, both historical and imagined, as explicit subject and content; and secondly, to explore the ecology of revolution. I begin by imagining a world-literary criticism that seeks to take account of the revolutionary political potential of literature to challenge our global present. My critical framework combines world-systems and world-ecology approaches to world literature as the literature of the capitalist world-system, while drawing on the Warwick Research Collective’s conceptualisation of this world-literature as mediating and figuring combined and uneven development (WReC 2015). However, world-systems approaches can tend towards a critique of domination that emphasises the top-down effects of inter-state competition, and thus it is urgent that world-literary critics read not only for critique of the totality of capitalism, but also the ways in which texts imagine and represent the making-of-history-from-below.