THERE is an old saying, “The proper study of mankind is man,” but it would be just as true to say, “The proper study of man is mankind,” if we mean by mankind all the human societies. For the highest outcome of evolution as yet reached on our earth is a human society, imperfect as all of them are. So, as we began our studies with a distant nebula, we end them for to-day—to begin at a higher level to-morrow—with human society. But we cannot do more than say a little about its beginnings long ago.