WITHIN THE western-and Christian-imagination 'Jewish difference" has been articulated through overlapping and often contradictory appeals to "race;' gender, religion, and nation.The intersection of race and gender at and as the site ofJewishness can be seen in much of the popular and "scientific" literature of nineteenth-and early twentieth-century Germany and Austria, where a stereotyped femininity underwrote representations ofJewishness. For Jewish male bodies, marked for an anti-Semitic imaginary as "black," "effeminate," and "queer," the sexualization of"race" and the racialization of "sex" were constitutive features. Indeed, the feminization ofJewish men was so frequent a theme in this period that Jewishness-more precisely, the Jewishness of male Jews-became as much a category of gender as of race. I It remains to be asked what such "interarticulations" (to borrow Judith Butler's formulation) of gender and race may have meant for Jewish women."