A contradiction inherent in hate speech terminology stems from its wording. Hate speech was initially a purely American doctrinal term, which entered legal scholarship widely after the mid-1980s. For instance, Thomas Tedford in his 1985 monograph neither defined nor identified this label. 1 However, he discussed the same judgements to which contemporary scholars of free speech make their references. Those cases were scattered in different chapters because his taxonomy did not envisage a layer for hate speech. As Kevin Boyle points out, “hate speech is in fact an American expression that has gained international currency although it is also termed hate propaganda elsewhere.” 2