Sympathy is closely allied to suggestion. It is an inborn characteristic but, as stated above, its form of expression is less specific than that of the instinctive tendencies in McDougall's list included in our chapter on "Motivation". McDougall classified sympathy together with suggestion and imitation as pseudo-instincts. He pointed out that each of these three propensities are similar inasmuch as two parties are involved, the one being the agent and the other his subject.