Abh = area of bolt holes where Abh = (number of bolt

holes)(bolt hole diameter)(thickness)

In Figure 22.1, the gross area of the 1″ × 8″ plate = Ag = 1″(8″)

An = Ag − Abh = 8in 2 − (2bolts)(78 ″ diameter)(1″

In designing steel components subjected to tension, the

tensile stress, ft = P/A is a good starting point to determine

how much cross-section area is required to prevent the

component from pulling apart. Most components in tension,

however, are connected to another member with a bolted

connection. In these cases, not only must gross yielding in

tension be considered, but also tensile rupture, block shear

and the shear and bearing strength of the bolts. Bolt design is

covered in Chapter 24: Steel Connections.