Intellectual property rights (IPRs) are associated with patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, and other protective devices granted by the state to facilitate industrial innovation and artistic creation (Keupp, Beckenbauer, and Gassman, 2010; Wolfhard, 1991). The grant of exclusive property rights provides owners with personal incentives to make the most productive use of their assets and facilitates transfers by making possible a high degree of exchange. Intellectual property rights are one form of exclusive rights conferred by the state to promote science and technology. The issue of intellectual property has received wider attention than other property rights for the following reasons:

The volume of trade in goods protected by intellectual property rights is becoming increasingly signifi cant as more countries produce and consume products that result from creative activity and innovation (Denton, 2011; Gadbaw and Richards, 1988).