This chapter presents the background of the international administrations in Bosnia and Kosovo as well as an introduction to Bosnia’s and Kosovo’s political institutions. First, I cover the historical background of the OHR and UNMIK. This overview includes a section which explains how the conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo were not resolved and how the non-resolution of conflict ultimately led to the establishment of control and governorship types of international administrations in Bosnia and Kosovo Second, the mandate and organization of the international administrations are described. An analysis is included of how the OHR and UNMIK have proceeded in implementing their mandates and the role of other international actors. Third, the political institutions in Bosnia and Kosovo are introduced. The focus of this examination is put on constitutional design and on those political institutions that are under scrutiny in this study: the presidency, the government and parliament at the central level of government. By presenting these institutions, the first phase of institutionalization (the creation of institutions) under international administration is elaborated upon.