This monograph explores aspects of technology development aid to low income countries (LICs). It provides an analysis of parts of a wider technical assistance programme designed to improve the impact of scientific research on agricultural production with a special focus on the rural poor. The UK Department of International Development’s Research into Use (RIU) programme was established both to improve the use of its previously funded research in LIC agriculture and to better understand the factors that are relevant in this respect. The monograph concentrates on what came to be called the Best Bets, a small set of projects within the wider programme designed to leverage private sector input into technology development, thereby encouraging (hopefully) greater sustainability than would be obtained with more conventional types of aid. These projects have been conducted in Africa over the period 2009-2012.1 Some are now completed; others are nearing completion. As outlined in the Preface, the following chapters cover science policy analysis, the projects themselves, their selection, how they fit within the wider RIU programme and most importantly what their implementation appears to tell us about this type of technology development aid.