This chapter deals with utilitarianism. We will look at what utilitarianism is, and investigate some of the criticisms that are often made of it, and look at the way utilitarian theory can develop to accommodate such criticism. The emphasis is on the way in which considerations that naturally arise in thinking about morality can lead us to the utilitarian tradition, and how it might then seem worthwhile to get into the business of refining and developing the theory to overcome objections. This distinctively theoretical approach - aiming for a systematic answer to moral questions that is not vulnerable to objections - is not just an "ivory tower" enterprise, but rather a necessary part of fully understanding the role of morality in our lives.