In 1922, in an article describing the work of infant welfare centres in Holland, Dr J. H. G. Carstens declared that the proper direction of such work lay with children's doctors or general practitioners with special experience in the field.) Such specialized work, he argued, could not be left to the uncertain devices of midwives, district nurses, sick fund doctors, or family doctors. While Dr Carstens, a children's doctor in Utrecht and a leading light in the movement to reduce infant deaths, was unusual in stating his case so bluntly and precisely, he reflected a general sentiment felt amongst infant welfare workers in Holland. His statement also reflected the reality of the situation. In Holland infant welfare work was initiated and directed by doctors, with paediatricians and, to a lesser but still important extent, obstetricians playing a major part in building up services from 1901 onwards.