Citizens’ own ways to reduce and adapt to urban risk are often called coping strategies, private adaptation, autonomous adaptation or adaptive behaviour (see Section 2.1).2 Used adaptive capacity is seen in how citizens reduce and adapt to urban risk. People take measures during ‘normal’ times with the aim of being less aff ected by potential small-scale or exceptionally largescale hazard impacts. In addition, during and after hazard impacts, citizens employ reactive ad hoc measures to respond and recover, which they have not prepared beforehand.3