Now that the initial hype over MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses)—referred to by some as “MOOC Mania”—has subsided, we have the benefit of research studies and accounts of first-hand experience to provide us with a clearer sense of what MOOCs are all about in regard to teaching and learning. However, so often have MOOCs and online education in general been conflated, that some have begun to refer to the instructor-facilitated online course for 10–50 students as a “traditional online course.” This chapter will forego lengthy treatments on the history of MOOCs and the attendant controversies, referring you to some excellent curated resources on these subjects (see Guide to Resources, Online Education, Research on MOOCs section), and focus on a few aspects of teaching and learning in MOOCs in regard to the instructor’s role, pedagogy, student learning and participation, and the design issues that may affect teaching and learning. Let’s assume that your institution has asked you to teach or help develop a MOOC or that you are contemplating one yourself. Or perhaps you have already participated in some way in the design or implementation of a MOOC course and you are not completely satisfied by what you have experienced in regard to teaching and learning.