For the second phase of the book, we turn from general issues to a consideration of some major approaches to ethics. These approaches are by no means comprehensive in the field, as a reading of, for instance, Alasdair MacIntyre’s A Short History of Ethics will indicate; but they represent important peaks in ethical theory, and are diverse enough to cover the range, without necessarily including every intermediate slope. Furthermore, they are all theories of right and wrong behaviour which remain significant for a host of students even today. Any comparative study of ethics will need more than is included here if no nuance is to be neglected; what is equally certain is that nobody can be said to have studied the subject at all comprehensively if any of these is ignored.