We have seen that the word ‘ought’, which, on the face of it, has a moral connotation, has, among other characteristics, a prudential implication: ‘ought’ in the sense that it would be in the person’s interests to act in a certain way. Some people believe, perhaps rather cynically, that all ‘ought’-statements fall into this category, with the exception of those which imply ‘living up to expectation’ which we noted in Chapter 3 (‘At your age you ought to be able to run a mile in five minutes’, etc.).