In Black Africa, knowledge of history is the outcome of a threefold stratiﬁcation. The oldest, oral tradition, works not only at the level of fact but also on that of myth – the legend of a Chaka, or of a Soundiata has as much reality as their real exploits, while a Torodo could identify with both the acts and the legend of El Hadj Omar. The second stratum is the history taught by the colonists. Finally, since independence, the work of African historians and today’s Africanists has resulted in a general, and still evolving, reevaluation of African history: their conclusions are expressed, for instance, in the journal Afrika Zamani and its results may be seen in the various new school-books of French-speaking Africa. They oﬀer a ‘decolonized history’.