The possibility that alcohol might be injurious if consumed during pregnancy has been acknowledged for centuries. The Bible and the Talmud advised pregnant women to refrain from drinking. In the ancient city states of Sparta and Carthage alcohol consumption was proscribed for all males and females 30 or younger who were recently married. This rule was intended to prevent the conception of damaged children (Haggard and Jellinek 1942; Plant 1985). It is clear that the development of the human foetus may be adversely effected, even terminated, by exposure to a wide range of chemical compounds (Elkington 1986).