We have now demonstrated, particularly in the last three chapters, the way in which Gorno-Badakhshan has progressed from a very low level of development at the beginning of the twentieth century – one comparable to that of bordering Afghan territories – to a relatively secure standard of living, even judged by modern standards. This was a consequence of the Soviet reconstruction programme, mainly since the 1950s. There is no point criticising the fact that the level of income in GBAO was lower in 1990 than in the rest of Tajikistan, and was here much lower than in Russia for instance, as other criteria have to be taken into account. We entirely agree with Hafizullah Emadi’s statement:

In the Soviet era Gorno-Badakhshan received Soviet support in education, health care, housing and other amenities of life, similar to that received throughout the rest of the Soviet Union. The people of Badakhshan are indebted to Lenin’s socialism for transforming their primordial economy and enhancing their standard of living.