The raison d’être of many groups has been to heighten environmental sensibility.7 But as well as seeking to shape public opinion very generally, significant numbers of organizations choose to affect specific changes in particular policies (at the stages of agenda-setting, decision-making and implementation) by deliberately targeting the politically and economically powerful: that is, advocacy or as it is universally labelled in this field, campaigning. As Michael Jacobs notes, ‘even though now adopted by government and business, the discourse of environmental policy . . . comes directly from the green movement’s conceptual framework and ethics’ (Jacobs, 1997: 2).