This chapter examines cases that reach the criminal justice system. It is mainly based on data extracted from case-files at Uxbridge Magistrates’ Court and Isleworth Crown Court, and from attending hearings on immigration-offence cases at both venues. As I explained in Chapter 4, being unable to produce a passport is one of the most frequently prosecuted immigration offences. Thus, a large percentage of immigration-related cases handled by criminal courts involve this offence. Once prosecutors decide to pursue a case involving immigration crimes, the normal criminal proceeding follows. In principle, there is no distinction between an immigration-related case and other cases. However, because immigration-related offences bring together two different legal branches – immigration law and criminal law – during the criminal process, some aspects of immigration law and the immigration case of the defendant may emerge in the criminal case.