In this chapter, the focus of attention turns to civil society organizations and actors at the national and local scale. These include community-based organizations, local NGOs and networks of action, including trade unions, resistance movements and campaigns. This follows the discussion of international NGOs in Chapter 6 and, in Chapter 5, the global networks of private capital within which development action increasingly takes place. This chapter continues the discussion of the role and effectiveness of these actors and organizations that represent the contemporary face of development.