Needless to say, when in 1991 I undertook field research, I hoped to avoid all of these sins. The research itself explored the intersection of tree tenure, gender, and tree planting and use in two villages3 located in two different ecological zones within 100 kilometers of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe. Residents of both sites depend on rainfed agriculture and jobs in town for their livelihood. Trees play a crucial role in the livelihood strategies of the two study sites. They provide domestic and commercial sources of food, medicine, browse, poles, fuel, mulch, and wood for carving as well as serving ecological and religious functions. The research took three complementary forms - a standard random sample survey, participant observation, and a series of participatory methods.