Adverbs (7.1.1 (iv)) are words that modify verbs, nominal predicates, adjectives, other adverbials, or whole sentences. ‘Adverbial’ is a broader term used to cover all types of sentence constituent that perform the function of an adverb. Adverbials vary widely in structure (16.1), from single words (e.g. herhalde ‘probably’, bugün ‘today’) through noun phrases, with or without suffixes (e.g. bu sabah ‘this morning’, iki gündür ‘for two days’), and postpositional phrases (e.g.…rağmen ‘in spite of…’to adverbial clauses (e.g. yanlışımı anlayınca ‘upon realizing my mistake’). The functions of adverbials are reviewed in 16.2. The following sections focus in turn on the various semantic roles that adverbial constructions play in the sentence, and are organized as follows: modal adverbials (16.3), adverbials of time (16.4.1), place (16.4.2), manner (16.4.3), quantity or degree (16.5) and respect (16.6), exclusive adverbials (16.7) and particularizing adverbials (16.8). Section 6.9 describes the modification of adverbs.