The following conclusions can only hope to outline some of the many key points raised within this book. Chapter 1 pointed to the difficulties political scientists still have in defining concepts such as 'ethnic' and 'nations'. In lieu of better definitions this study has used these concepts to describe different stages of nation building. The use of the term 'nation' remains open to confusion and differing interpretations. Is there a 'British nation' or is Great Britain composed of four 'nations'? Both definitions are commonly used. Indeed, on the basis of some looser definitions of 'nations' Ukraine could already be classified as a 'nation'. For example, Indonesia, probably the most heterogeneous country in the world, is described by respected publications as a 'nation'.