A survey of the religious minorities in Ottoman Egypt must include the Coptic and Jewish communities, with more emphasis on the former since it was much larger.1 But, since the sources provide considerably more information about the Jews, this chapter will deal with them in greater detail. The disproportionate attention the sources pay to the Jews in comparison with the Copts is perhaps due to the high position that some Jews attained in Ottoman Egypt’s fiscal administration. This does not mean, however, that the sources are particularly rich concerning the Jews. The archival material and the chronicles provide only rather scanty, episodic information on the dhimmis in comparison with other elements in Egyptian society, such as the ruling class or the ulama. Another word of caution is in order. Both the official documents, such as the firmans, and the chronicles more often than not mention the dhimmis in a negative context: for example, when a Jewish or a Christian financial agent is accused of fraudulent practices, or when Muslims riot against the dhimmis. Since the sources may rarely record honest dhimmi officials or peaceful relations between Muslims and dhimmis, the picture that emerges may be gloomier than it was in fact.