In the vast majority of cases, the public knew nothing about nanotechnologies before their involvement in the experiments. Only 4 percent of these experiments concerned stakeholders who had a direct involvement in nanotechnologies, and then, the involvement was scientifi c rather than industrial or governmental. In most cases, participants engaged themselves on a voluntary basis, although NEG documented experiments where people were paid to participate or were enticed to do so by other means (for instance, to talk about other subjects that deeply concerned them).