With the case studies in this chapter and subsequent ones, I adopt a consistent approach to understanding party identity and party choices using the framework outlined in Chapter 2. Each case starts with some background, then focusses on the internal dynamics within each party. In particular it discusses the party’s historical origins, identifying the role of intra-party factions at critical junctures in the party’s formation and any lasting ‘portable skills’ or ‘usable pasts’ resulting from these processes – particularly personnel or organizational legacies. Second, it goes on to examine the salient features of party programme and ideology and how these affect the party’s core policy stances. Third, each case focusses on the demand and external supply-side, in particular salient issues, political institutions, party systemic factors and any external shocks that may have influenced party conduct. Finally, each case makes observations on the party’s medium-term political prospects. Consequently each case enables us to identity the party’s core aims and the chief influences impacting on these aims.