In 2009, Africa’s population exceeded 1 billion people for the first time and, given the reality that Africa has some of the fastest growth rates in the world, the continent’s population could double by the year 2050 (PRB, 2009). The current average African population growth rate of 2.4 per cent per annum is double the world average and this has significant implications for a variety of the key themes examined in this book, including: access to land, employment, social services and housing. The fact that population growth rates exceed economic growth rates in many parts of the continent, and have done so for much of the post-independence era, is a continuing cause for concern, as are higher rates of infant mortality, malnutrition and HIV/AIDS infection than are experienced in other continents. In addition, significant population relocation has taken place, either in search of employment, such as in southern Africa, or forced relocation in the case of refugee movements from political flash-points, such as Darfur and the Great Lakes region. A clear link exists between key demographic trends, population growth rates and overall levels and prospects of economic well-being and development (UNECA, 2001). Over and above this, significant regional differences exist between tropical Africa and North and southern Africa, not only in terms of key demographic, nutritional and economic indicators, but also in terms of such issues as religion and cultural diversity.