India is the world’s largest democracy and the second mostpopulous country. As one of the fastest developing economies, it boasts of a large skilled workforce and extensive health infrastructure. It was one of the first developing countries to have a national family planning programme and its primary health care programmes have substantially improved health indicators in general. Despite these accomplishments, India still has high maternal and child mortality rates, which have been stagnant since the 1990s. Significant efforts need to be realised to complete the demographic and epidemiological transition, and improve maternal and child health outcomes. This includes revisiting the role of midwifery.