Today, religious groups are increasingly de ned as media audiences; they operate within expanding information spheres and mediated networks. at is, the media play an important role in religious organizations. e knowledge culture of Judaism, for example, has expanded into the Internet. A genre of Mormon lm has recently emerged. Televangelism is common in many conservative Protestant denominations. Listening to recorded sermons is a daily activity for many Muslims, and reading the vani or published messages of gurus is an important ritual in the Hindu diaspora. Along with doctrine and dogma, the media are at the center of worship.