The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, enshrined as Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development1 among other international agreements, calls for developed countries to recognise the particular challenges faced by developing countries and economies in transition, and also to lead by example in putting their own house in order. Notably this dual obligation is recognised in the European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development (European Commission 2002a, revised 20062). At its most fundamental level, this means taking action to change current patterns of production and consumption. This is indispensable for achieving global sustainable development, as recognised in the WSSD Plan of Implementation (WSSD 2002). In addition, developed countries have their own agenda to address cross-cutting economic, social and environmental challenges, such as transport congestion, increasing volumes of toxic waste and persistent contaminants and, in many cases, an ageing population.