The break-up of the USSR was without a doubt a geo-political “earthquake” which changed the balance of power in the world. Not only did the Soviet Union cease to exist, but so did the so-called Eastern Bloc, the United States triumphed and NATO found itself in a dominant position. This was not, however, a sign of the “end of history”, but the beginning of a new world order, in the face of which the Russian Federation stood before a double challenge: defining its identity and formulating its own vision of the new order. Both questions are closely connected, because the choice of the model for identity building significantly influences Russia’s vision of an international system of the twenty-first century. For this reason, religion, as an essential component of Russian national identity, is present in Russian views on foreign policy.