In much education there is a tendency for learning to be treated simply as the delivery of knowledge and values by those who know more (teachers) to those who know less and know it less expertly (learners). In other words, teachers transmit and learners ingest a commodity called knowledge. This kind of ‘learning’ as a mode of transmission views knowledge as an entity which is fixed, public, written and formal; it allows the outcome of learning to be treated as a differentially measurable product; it considers teachers to be ‘the experts’ and views learners merely as receptacles for and disembodied from whatever learning is supposed to be taking place. Consequently, learners are frequently attributed with passivity; are deemed to have little experience and understanding that is relevant to the situation and are seen to have a capability to learn that is likely to respond only to incentives and deterrents. A typical learning experience is likely to consist mainly of a traditional ‘chalk and talk’ lecture or ‘skills and drills’ workshop, with little opportunity for students to contribute or exchange views and little possibility to choose topics or learn in different ways. As we know, under such circumstances, learning often does not take place.