The climate is changing. Chapter 2 shows that it is changing faster, and in more and different ways, than had been anticipated. In addition to trying to slow the rate of future changes (see Chapters 5 and 6), we have two response options available to us (Figure 4.1 ). These are both referred to as ‘adaptation’, a term used to describe actions that aim to moderate, cope with and benefi t from the consequences of climate change in order to manage risk and reduce vulnerability (Jopp et al ., 2010 ).