It is typically taken for granted that great reforms have occurred in the education system: reforms in school organization, curriculum and teacher-pupil relations. Perhaps simplistically, it has been thought that in reforming school one might also reform society. However, such reforms have not been clear-cut in their implementation, perhaps mismanaged, and frequently under-resourced despite apparent massive injections of resources. Vaizey (1958) in 1955 found that 70 per cent more was spent on grammar school pupils than secondary modern pupils. However, from 1955 to 1965 the secondary school population rose by 50 per cent and real expenditure on pupils more than doubled (Vaizey and Sheehan, 1968). However, as

Hough (1981:27) writes, the expenditure was unequally allocated 'due to the heavy weighting given to older pupils in the Rate Support Grant, the effect being that the most prosperous localities received the largest grants. ' Areas traditionally poorly served continued to be poorly served. Hough's own research showed wide variations in the allocation of resources as between regions.