Several methods and a number of basic and special scales are available to assess complex validity issues on the MMPI-2. Nine basic MMPI-2 validity measures provide the clinician with the essential frame of reference for interpreting the clinical and supplementary scales. These nine basic validity measures (?, VRIN, TRIN, F, FB, F(p), L, K, and S) give some indications of (a) whether the client understood and answered all the items in a consistent fashion; (b) the extent to which the client is endorsing items claiming the experience of psychological pain and unusual, bizarre experiences, behaviors, or ideas; and (c) the extent to which the client might be trying, intentionally or unintentionally, to give a favorable or unfavorable self-portrayal. In other words, the basic validity scales are useful in determining the consistency and accuracy of reported symptoms, complaints, and traits. In addition to measuring validity, some of the validity scales also have personality correlates. The interpretations that follow, then, focus both on the validity aspects of the validity scales and, where applicable, the personality aspects. Additional special validity scale guideline ranges are presented for: Ds, Mp, Sd, Ss, F-FB Index, Dissimulation Index (F – K), and the True Percent index.