Berlin Plus, requiescat in pace. A telling sign of the parlous and occasionally absurd state of NATO-CSDP relations lies in the fact that the founding agreement between the two organizations, though nine years in the making, only remained relevant for less than 20 months.1 In all, out of 25 ESDP/CSDP missions (completed or ongoing), only two ever utilized the Berlin Plus format – Concordia in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), and Althea in Bosnia.2