As I have done for the West in Chapter 5, I will first present the economic performance of China’s reforms since 1978, what I have called China’s New Public Management. Then I will present the negative economic and social consequences of these reforms.1 In the second section I will also devote some space to the analysis of the consequences of the new policies that ‘put people first’ on the rebalancing of Chinese society. I will propose an answer to the question: have these policies succeeded in reversing the trend towards increased inequalities and environmental damages that appeared since the beginning of reforms in the1980s?

The economic perspective: a view from above, or catching up with the West In this part, by presenting the economic results obtained thanks to the reforms implemented under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin, I will also try to evaluate to what extent China has succeeded in catching up with the West, and above all with the United States.