ABSTRACT

The conceptual development of esteem is more diffi cult to trace than any conception of honor we have examined thus far. Its utility is primarily rooted in psychological studies of “self-esteem.” There are various defi nitions for “self-esteem” including a division into conceptions such as trait self-esteem and state self-esteem, depending on whether the researcher is interested in long-term or short-term trends, respectively. Self-esteem has been examined as “love for himself/herself.”2 A more approachable theoretical treatment of self-esteem is the level of one’s “positive self-evaluation.”3 Self-esteem is measured by examining the “the degree to which the individual is being accepted versus rejected by other people.”4 Self-esteem appears to be a refl exive examination of the self’s social inclusion, within a cognitive mechanism known as a sociometer.5 Self-esteem is a concept that links the individual to the group through identity, based upon value. In accordance with the general thesis of this work, esteem has a place within the examination of the phenomenology of honor, but where?