The use of weiquan from the point of view of lawyers has been a subject discussed by quite a number of academics writing from the West in English, chief among them Eva Pils (2005, 2007, and 2009), Fu Hualing and Richard Cullen (2008), and Feng Chongyi (2009), together with a wide range of journalists and representatives of non-government organisations. These writers explicitly discuss weiquan as a discrete idea, and one which represents a signi¼cant aspect of Chinese society. No systematic academic analysis of weiquan took place before about 2004. Indeed, quite a number of these writers have acted as though the idea of weiquan did not really exist properly before controversial human rights lawyers started to use it: an assertion which the research in Chapter 2 (and of course the discussion in all of the previous chapters) clearly contradicts.