Rapid urbanisation is often associated with both prosperity and new challenges

in improving the well-being of low-income urban residents. Although cities are

often conceived of as engines of economic growth and cultural development,

more than one billion urban residents worldwide live in conditions of inadequate

shelter, poor access to basic services, insecurity of land tenure and uncertain

livelihoods. Climate change will bring gradual change and extreme events that

compound the existing risks facing these people. Dominant responses to climate

change in urban areas have tended to focus on the role of municipal or national

governments, sometimes in association with private sector partners (Bulkeley

and Betsill 2005; Anguelovski and Carmin 2011; Corfee-Morlot et al. 2011). However, in recent years a growing number of development NGOs and inter-

national organisations have started to engage with efforts to assist towns and

cities to adapt to climate change, with increasing interest in the potential of

community-based adaptation (CBA) to build adaptive capacity among low-

income urban residents. These approaches draw on aspects of governance, such

as local decision-making and ownership, and utilise a range of tools and

approaches intended to integrate community participation into urban planning.