Introduction The aim of this chapter is to provide a detailed description of the role conceptions found in the content analysis of German and Japanese foreign policy speeches. The discussion begins with the six NRCs found to apply to both Germany and Japan, followed by an examination of the seventh NRC, identified only in Japanese speeches. In the chapter’s final section, Germany’s and Japan’s overall role sets are compared and evaluated. The section argues that at first sight the two countries seem to share many similarities, but a closer examination finds significant differences in policy-makers’ perspectives. The section also reconsiders the question of change and continuity in German and Japanese foreign policymaking, arguing that rapid shifts in policy goals and strategies have not occurred in either country in the post-Cold War era and appear unlikely for the foreseeable future.