Ҩ㒚 zHxì ‘careful’ + ഄ de2 � Ҩ㒚ഄ(ⳟ) ‘carefully (reading)’ ᕜ᜶ hGn-màn ‘very slow’ + ഄ de2 � ᕜ᜶ഄ(䍄 ) ‘very slowly (walking)’ 䴲ᐌᮽ fBicháng-zFo ‘exceptionally � 䴲ᐌᮽഄ(⾏ᓔ) ‘(leaving)

early’ + ഄ de2 exceptionally early’

Third, the verb complement, indicated by ᕫ de3. The structure: V-ᕫ de3 + complement. The verb uses de3 to introduce a complement indicating the manner or degree of the action. When the verb is a verb-object compound, the verb that takes de3 must be duplicated. See the examples in 46c. (See also §45.)


46c ⳟкⳟᕫᖿᵕњ (kàn-shE) kàn-de3 kuài-jíle ‘read extremely fast’ ৗ佁ৗᕫᕜᇥ (chC-fàn) chC-de3 hGn shFo ‘eat very little’

wánr-de3 zhBn gAoxìng ‘have a good time playing’ (lit. ‘play really happily’)

ュᕫ㙮ᄤ⮐ xiào-de3 dùzi téng ‘laugh so hard that the stomach hurts’

Comparative note: While both ഄ de2 and ᕫ de3 relate to the manner of an action, the former is more interpretive, i.e. it notes the way the action unfolds, whereas the latter is more descriptive, i.e. it notes the action’s character. The adverbial phrase with de2 is more likely a speaker’s subjective view, whereas the complement introduced by de3 is more likely the action’s objective nature. Compare sentences 46d-e, and another pair of examples, 46f-g.