Many have argued that racial inequality in recruitment between Minority Ethnic groups and the majority White population continues to represent a major persistent source of social and economic injustice (Bassanini and Saint-Martin 2008). I have already discussed this in the opening chapter. However, despite its obvious theoretical import, research attention has focused disproportionately on the prevalence of discrimination per se, rather than on the core psychological processes underpinning potential sources of bias in recruitment and hiring decisions. Research attention urgently needs to shift away from an exploration of the magnitude of ‘ethnic penalties’ (see Heath and Li 2007), and investigate instead the psychological conditions that give rise to discrimination and ultimately towards an understanding of what (if any) policy initiatives can be implemented during personnel recruitment to reduce potential bias in the decision-making processes that underpin selection.