The inﬂuential work of Beck and colleagues has highlighted the central role of cognitions and cognitive processes in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders (Beck, 1967, 1971, 1976). The explanatory cognitive model that emerged suggests that biases in information processing and cognitions result in the development and maintenance of signiﬁcant negative emotional states. Particular emotional states are assumed to be associated with speciﬁc maladaptive cognitions, and it is these cognitions that are hypothesised to diﬀerentiate between emotions. It is therefore assumed that beliefs associated with personal failure, loss and hopelessness are associated with depression. The content of anxiety beliefs is assumed to be more future-oriented and relates to fear of physical or psychological harm and danger. Finally, aggression is assumed to be associated with cognitions relating to unfairness, being wronged and the perception of hostile intent.