When it comes to governing or managing groundwater resources, what is it that one is really trying to govern – the groundwater stored and captured by wells and drained by springs, or the ‘container’, the aquifer that stores groundwater? This chapter introduces the reader to both approaches of governance and introduces a transdisciplinary approach to governing the subterranean resources that links communities of users to approaches of increasing competition and accountability, takes a look forward toward exploring for new aquifers, takes a look forward at future uses of depleted aquifers and uses diplomacy to share lessons learned from the transdisciplinary imagination.