Naïve Russellians hold that names contribute only their referents to propositions, and they hold that propositions are structured entities containing objects and properties. The naïve Russellian holds, for example, that the sentence “Venus is a planet” expresses a proposition that can be rep - resented as

1. Venus, being a planet and that the sentence “Herman Melville was born in NYC” expresses a proposition that can be represented as

Melville, NYC, being born. These propositions contain, respectively, Venus, Melville, and NYC as con stituents.