This chapter provides a systematic approach for selecting ratified bilateral, international water treaties from which in-depth cases will be selected and studied. To set the stage for a sound selection approach, the chapter provides, in a broad sense, a review of international water treaties in an attempt to highlight major trends and patterns that are pertinent to the assessment and understanding of processes and outcomes. This provides grounds for the selection of an array of cases, nine in all, which are scanned, documented, and analyzed. In this scanning assessment of cases, the chapter seeks to elicit a modicum of additional background data and information on the range of equity conditions, from high to low, in both “perceived” and “outcome” conditions. In this way, scanning these nine treaties will provide a global outlook of the issues and forces surrounding international water conflicts, negotiation, and allocation, and a characterization of the spectrum of equity-related factors and considerations, whereas the subsequent analysis of two detailed key case studies will allow for a richer and deeper investigation.